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205 Martyrs of Japan

The 205 Martyrs of Japan, also known as the Martyrs of Nagasaki, are a group of individuals who were martyred for their faith in Japan between the years 1597 and 1639. Their collective feast day is observed on September 10th. This group of martyrs consists of both Japanese and foreign missionaries who were active in spreading the Christian faith during a time of intense persecution in Japan, known as the Edo period. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Christianity began to take root in Japan through the efforts of various Jesuit, Franciscan, and Dominican missionaries. The devotion to the Catholic faith grew rapidly, which eventually alarmed the ruling authorities of Japan, particularly the Tokugawa shogunate. Concerned about the influence of Christianity and growing European influence, the shogunate initiated a series of persecutions against Christians, culminating in the martyrdom of the 205 individuals known as the Martyrs of Japan. Among the 205 individuals, 105 were Japanese laypeople, 54 were Japanese priests and religious, and 46 were missionaries and clergy from Europe. They include individuals from diverse backgrounds, including men, women, children, religious priests, and even a few non-clerical laypeople. The manner in which the Martyrs of Japan were executed varied, but common methods included crucifixion, burning at the stake, beheading, and drowning. These executions were often extremely brutal, intended not only to put an end to the spread of Christianity but also to instill fear among the local Christian community. The Martyrs of Japan remained steadfast in their faith, even in the face of extreme persecution and torture. Their unwavering commitment to their Christian beliefs, their love for God, and their dedication to sharing the Gospel message with others is a testament to their remarkable courage and devotion. The collective memory and veneration of the 205 Martyrs of Japan are a testament to their enduring legacy. They were officially beatified by Pope Urban VIII on September 14, 1627, and later canonized as saints by Pope Pius IX on June 8, 1862. Their feast day is celebrated annually on September 10th, commemorating their sacrifice and serving as an inspiration for Catholics worldwide. While individual profiles, representations, or specific patronages for the 205 Martyrs of Japan are not widely known or documented, they are collectively honored as an extraordinary group of individuals who gave their lives for their faith, shining as witnesses of Christ's love, mercy, and sacrifice. The 205 Martyrs of Japan serve as an inspiration for Catholics today, reminding us of the importance of religious freedom, the courage to profess our faith in the face of adversity, and the power of martyrdom as a witness to the Gospel message. Their lives and sacrifices continue to be celebrated and remembered within the Catholic Church, serving as a reminder of the perseverance and strength of the Christian faith.

262 Martyrs of Rome

The 262 Martyrs of Rome, also known as the 262 Random Christians Martyred Together, were a group of individuals who were martyred for their Christian faith in Rome, Italy. Unfortunately, not much information about their lives and backgrounds has survived, and their identities and specific stories remain unknown. These martyrs were part of a larger persecution of Christians that took place during the early centuries of the Christian era. The Roman Empire, under various emperors, enacted policies and laws that sought to suppress the growth of the Christian faith. Christians faced severe persecution, including imprisonment, torture, and death. The 262 Martyrs of Rome were among the countless Christian individuals who chose to remain steadfast in their devotion to their faith, even in the face of extreme adversity. They were courageous witnesses to their beliefs, refusing to renounce their Christian convictions regardless of the consequences. It is believed that they were captured and martyred together, possibly as a result of a mass roundup or public execution. These martyrs bore witness to their faith and the ultimate sacrifice they made is a testament to their unwavering commitment to God. They serve as a reminder of the strength and resilience of early Christians, who endured persecution for their beliefs and remained steadfast, even under the most dire circumstances. The exact representation or iconography associated with the 262 Martyrs of Rome is unknown, as no specific details have been preserved. However, it is not uncommon for depictions of martyrs to include symbols such as palm branches, representing victory over death, or the instruments of their torture. Although they have not been officially designated as patrons of any particular cause or group, the 262 Martyrs of Rome can be seen as inspiring figures for all Christians. Their martyrdom serves as a reminder of the price that was paid for the freedom of religion and the enduring commitment to faith. The feast day of the 262 Martyrs of Rome is celebrated on March 25th. This day serves as an opportunity for individuals to remember and honor their sacrifice, and to reflect on the courage and faithfulness displayed by these unknown but heroic individuals. While the 262 Martyrs of Rome have not been formally canonized by the Catholic Church, they are recognized as saints on a pre-congregation level. The term "pre-congregation" refers to the time before the formal canonization process was established in the Catholic Church. During this period, saints were often recognized and venerated locally or regionally, based on popular devotion and local traditions. In conclusion, the 262 Martyrs of Rome were a group of Christians who shared the same fate of martyrdom in Rome, Italy. Their stories, names, and backgrounds have not been preserved, but their witness and sacrifice serve as a powerful reminder of the courage and commitment of early Christians. Their feast day on March 25th provides an opportunity to honor their memory and reflect on the enduring legacy of faith and courage they have left behind.

40 Martyrs In North Africa

The 40 Martyrs in North Africa, also known as the Holy Forty Martyrs or simply the Martyrs of North Africa, were a group of Christians who were martyred together in an unknown location in North Africa. Unfortunately, little is known about the exact details of their martyrdom, but their names have been recorded for posterity. The names of the 40 Martyrs in North Africa are as follows: 1. Antonius 2. Artilaus 3. Asclipius 4. Astexius 5. Basil 6. Bosimus 7. Carissimus 8. Castus 9. Celedonius 10. Claudianus 11. Cyricus 12. Donata 13. Emeritus 14. Emeterius 15. Euticus 16. Felix 17. Fortunatus 18. Frunumius 19. Gajola 20. Georgius 21. Gorgonius 22. Hemeterus 23. Isicus 24. Janula 25. Julius 26. Luciola 27. Luciolus 28. Marcia 29. Marinus 30. Meterus 31. Nicephorus 32. Papias 33. Photius 34. Risinnius 35. Sabianus 36. Savinianus 37. Solus Unfortunately, no details about the remaining three names have been passed down to us. These 40 martyrs are believed to have faced persecution and martyrdom for their Christian faith during a time when Christianity was not accepted in the region. Despite the scarcity of information surrounding their lives and martyrdom, their unwavering commitment to their Christian beliefs and their ultimate sacrifice have earned them a place in the annals of Christian history. Because their exact representation or the way in which they are depicted is not specified, there is no specific visual representation associated with the Martyrs of North Africa. However, depictions of groups of martyrs are often seen in Christian art, holding palm branches as symbols of their martyrdom and crowns as a representation of their triumph over death. The 40 Martyrs in North Africa lived and died before the formal establishment of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, which means they were canonized before the standard canonization process was instituted. Therefore, their canonization is considered Pre-Congregation, meaning that their sanctity and martyrdom were recognized by the early Christian communities closest to their time. Despite the lack of specific patronage attributed to the 40 Martyrs in North Africa, their witness and sacrifice can serve as a source of inspiration and intercession for all Christians facing persecution or hardship, as well as for those seeking strength in their faith. The feast day of the 40 Martyrs in North Africa is commemorated on March 3rd, an occasion to remember and honor their memory within the Catholic Church. Although the scarce details make it challenging to construct a comprehensive biography of the 40 Martyrs in North Africa, their names serve as a powerful reminder of the countless Christians throughout history who have bravely and faithfully stood firm in their beliefs, even in the face of persecution and martyrdom.

47 Martyrs of Rome

The 47 Martyrs of Rome, also known as the 47 Roman Martyrs, refer to a group of individuals who were baptized into the Christian faith in Rome, Italy by Saint Peter the Apostle. They later became victims of persecution and were martyred together during the reign of Emperor Nero. These brave men and women were among the early followers of Christ, bearing witness to their beliefs even in the face of extreme adversity. During the persecutions under Nero, Christians faced severe hostility and oppression. Despite the imminent danger, they remained steadfast in their faith and refused to renounce their belief in Jesus Christ. The 47 Martyrs of Rome were led by the deacon Saint Tiburtius, who was known for his deep devotion to serving God and his unwavering commitment to the Christian community. Alongside him were numerous devout men and women, whose names are not recorded but are forever etched in the annals of Christian history. The group came from various backgrounds and social classes, united by their common faith and courage. It is believed that the 47 Martyrs of Rome were apprehended and brought before the authorities for their refusal to worship the Roman gods and their allegiance to Christianity. Despite the relentless persecution they endured, they remained steadfast in their conviction, refusing to abandon their faith even in the face of torture and death. During their trial, they were given numerous opportunities to renounce their Christian beliefs and embrace the Roman gods. However, they stood firm and resolute, declaring their loyalty to Christ until the very end. Their unwavering commitment to their faith inspired many others who witnessed their martyrdom, becoming a witness to the power and strength of Christianity. In the year c. 67, in Rome, Italy, the 47 Martyrs of Rome were publicly executed, serving as a grim reminder of the severe consequences that awaited those who professed the Christian faith at the time. It is important to note that their act of martyrdom occurred during the early period of Christianity when it was still not widely accepted. Therefore, their sacrifice stands as a testament to their unwavering devotion and their willingness to suffer for the sake of their beliefs. The canonization of the 47 Martyrs of Rome occurred before the establishment of the formal canonization process, known as Pre-Congregation. As early as the ancient Christian era, they were venerated as saints, acknowledging their exceptional sanctity and martyrdom. While their individual names may have been lost to history, their collective memory is celebrated on their feast day, which is observed on March 14th. Though their representation and specific patronages remain undocumented, the 47 Martyrs of Rome are remembered and honored as role models of faith, courage, and self-sacrifice within the Catholic Church. Their martyrdom serves as a constant reminder of the enduring power of Christianity and the strength of belief even in the face of extreme persecution. They continue to inspire countless individuals to this day, serving as a beacon of hope and unwavering faith.

Abbey of Fontenelle

Abbey of Fontenelle, also known as Abbey of Saint Wandrille or Fontenelle Abbey, is a Benedictine monastery located in the commune of Saint-Wandrille-Rançon in Normandy, France. The abbey was founded in 649 by Saint Wandrille, a Burgundian nobleman who had renounced his wealth and status to pursue a life of prayer and austerity. Saint Wandrille sought a secluded spot to establish a monastic community, and he chose a picturesque site on the banks of the River Seine, surrounded by lush forests and rolling hills. Under the guidance of Saint Wandrille, the Abbey of Fontenelle grew rapidly and became renowned for its spirituality and learning. The monks of Fontenelle devoted themselves to prayer, manual labor, and the study of sacred texts. They also maintained a scriptorium, where they produced and preserved numerous valuable manuscripts. Throughout its long history, the Abbey of Fontenelle faced numerous challenges. In the eighth century, it was ravaged by Viking raids and had to be rebuilt. It also endured periods of political instability and conflicts, including the Hundred Years' War and the French Revolution. Despite these trials, the abbey managed to survive and adapt to changing times. Over the centuries, the Abbey of Fontenelle became a prominent center of Benedictine life, attracting scholars, artists, and pilgrims from all over Europe. Its reputation for intellectual pursuits continued to flourish, particularly during the Renaissance and the Enlightenment periods. Many influential figures, including important theologians and philosophers, sought refuge or conducted research within its walls. The abbey's architectural design evolved over time, reflecting various styles such as Romanesque and Gothic. The monastery boasts a beautiful church dedicated to Saint Wandrille, which showcases stunning stained glass windows and intricate sculptures. In the wake of the French Revolution, the Abbey of Fontenelle suffered significant damages and was eventually abandoned. However, in the 19th century, it experienced a revival under the leadership of the Benedictine Order. Extensive restoration work was carried out to preserve and revitalize the monastic complex. Today, the Abbey of Fontenelle continues to be an active Benedictine abbey, following the ancient Rule of Saint Benedict. The monks maintain a rhythm of prayer, work, and study, upholding their centuries-old tradition of spirituality and learning. Visitors have the opportunity to explore the abbey's rich history, admire its architectural beauty, and experience the tranquility of monastic life. Although no specific patronage is attributed to the Abbey of Fontenelle, its enduring legacy as a place of prayer, intellectual pursuit, and spiritual growth continues to inspire individuals seeking to deepen their faith and understanding. The feast day of the Abbey of Fontenelle is celebrated on March 1st, honoring the memory of Saint Wandrille and the enduring heritage of this venerable monastic institution. In conclusion, the Abbey of Fontenelle stands as a testament to the enduring power of spirituality and learning. From its humble beginnings with Saint Wandrille to its current role as a vibrant Benedictine center, the abbey has weathered many challenges and continues to inspire and uplift those who enter its hallowed grounds.

Abbots of Cluny

The Abbots of Cluny were a group of renowned Catholic religious leaders who played a significant role in the history of the Cluny Abbey. This abbey, located in Cluny, France, was one of the largest and most influential monastic establishments in medieval Europe. The early abbots of Cluny were known for their saintly lives and their pivotal contributions to the spiritual and administrative development of the monastery. Aymardus was one of the first abbots of Cluny. Not much is known about his life, but his commitment to the monastic rule and his efforts to establish the abbey as a center of spiritual excellence laid a strong foundation for future generations. Berno succeeded Aymardus as the second abbot of Cluny. He was a close disciple of the renowned saint and monastic reformer, Abbot Maieul of Cluny, and played a crucial role in advancing the reform movement. Berno's dedication to the liturgical life and his strict adherence to the Rule of St. Benedict earned him great respect among his contemporaries. Hugh then took over as the third abbot of Cluny. He is often referred to as Hugh of Cluny and is considered one of the most influential figures in the history of the abbey. Hugh focused on consolidating the spiritual and administrative structures of the monastery, ensuring its growth and stability. He established several daughter houses of Cluny throughout Europe, spreading the Cluniac ideals far and wide. Mayeul, the fourth abbot, followed in the footsteps of his predecessors in further shaping the Cluniac reform. He was known for his personal austerity and his commitment to promoting monastic discipline and holiness. Under Mayeul's leadership, Cluny Abbey continued to flourish both spiritually and materially, gaining increased prominence and influence. Odilo, the fifth abbot, carried forward the work initiated by his predecessors. He was instrumental in establishing Cluny Abbey as a center for educational pursuits, promoting the intellectual development of the monks and fostering scholarship within the community. Odilo's devotion to the care and well-being of the poor also earned him great admiration. Odo, the sixth abbot of Cluny, continued the legacy of his predecessors by enhancing the importance of the liturgical life at the abbey. He emphasized the beauty of divine worship and led the monks in the meticulous execution of the liturgy. Odo's reputation for sanctity and his leadership skills contributed to the continued growth and prosperity of Cluny Abbey. Peter the Venerable, the last abbot included in this biography, held the position of abbot during the post-congregation period. As an erudite scholar and spiritual leader, he played a critical role in fostering interfaith dialogue and increasing understanding between Christianity and Islam. Peter the Venerable's writings and efforts made a significant contribution to intellectual and cultural exchanges between the East and the West. The feast day that honors the Abbots of Cluny is celebrated on April 29th each year, providing an opportunity to reflect on the saintly lives and significant contributions of these early abbots to the formation of the Cluniac monastic movement. While there is no specific patron associated with the Abbots of Cluny as a collective group, they are venerated as holy men who upheld the principles of monasticism and contributed greatly to the spiritual and cultural heritage of the Catholic Church. Although there is limited information available regarding their specific representations, depictions of the Abbots of Cluny may feature traditional symbols associated with saintly figures, such as a crosier, a book, or a halo, signifying their holiness and spiritual authority. Overall, the Abbots of Cluny left an indelible mark on the history of the Cluny Abbey and the broader Christian world. Through their exemplary lives, leadership, and dedication to spiritual renewal, they continue to inspire countless individuals in their own quest for holiness and living out the Gospel message.

Abraham The Patriarch

Abraham, also known as Abram, is an Old Testament patriarch, revered as the founder of the Hebrew nation and the father of all those who believe in the true God. He was married to Sarah, and their story is highly significant in the Bible. Though little is known about his early life, it is believed that Abraham was born in Ur, Chaldea. At God's command, Abraham left his homeland and journeyed to Canaan. This journey, known as the "Call of Abraham," marked a crucial turning point in his life. It was during this time that God established a special covenant with Abraham, promising to bless him and make him the father of a great nation. Abraham lived a nomadic life as a shepherd, traversing through various regions, including Canaan, Egypt, and the Negev. Throughout his travels, he faced numerous challenges and tests of faith. One of the most significant events in Abraham's life is his encounter with three angels who appeared to him in human form. Not recognizing their divine nature, Abraham warmly welcomed them into his tent and offered them food and hospitality. This act of kindness is depicted in many artistic representations of Abraham, where he is seen as a bearded old man offering food to three angels. Abraham's faith and obedience to God were also tested when he was asked to sacrifice his beloved son Isaac as an offering. Without hesitation, Abraham obeyed God's command, having unshakeable trust in His plan. However, just as Abraham was about to carry out the sacrifice, God intervened and provided a ram as a substitute. This event showcases Abraham's unwavering devotion and sets him apart as a model of faith for believers. Abraham is believed to have lived to the remarkable age of 175. He passed away around 1700 BC, dying of natural causes. Though he may not have a specific patronage assigned to him, Abraham's influence on religious history and the significant role he played in establishing the Hebrew nation cannot be overstated. While Abraham has not been officially canonized by the Catholic Church, his veneration predates the formal canonization process. Therefore, he is considered a saint by tradition and is celebrated on his feast day, which falls on October 9th. In summary, Abraham The Patriarch, or Abram, holds a vital place in religious history and is regarded as the founder of the Hebrew nation. His story, marked by faith, obedience, and trust in God's promises, continues to inspire believers. Represented as a bearded old man in various forms, Abraham's life serves as a profound example of devotion and submission to God's will.

Abrahamite Monks

The Abrahamite Monks, also known as the Martyrs of Constantinople, were a group of courageous monks who lived during the iconoclast persecutions of Emperor Theophilus in the 9th century. They took their name from their founder, Saint Abraham of Ephesus, who established a monastery in Constantinople. Saint Abraham of Ephesus was a devout and learned monk who sought to follow the teachings of the Catholic Church. He established a monastery in Constantinople where he gathered a group of like-minded individuals who were dedicated to prayer, study, and the pursuit of holiness. The community of monks grew under Saint Abraham's guidance and was known for their strict adherence to the monastic way of life. During the reign of Emperor Theophilus, a fervent supporter of iconoclasm, the Abrahamite Monks became targets of persecution. Iconoclasm was a movement that sought to prohibit the use and veneration of religious images, including icons. The emperor ordered the destruction of religious art and persecuted those who refused to comply with his orders. The Abrahamite Monks, under Saint Abraham's leadership, refused to abandon their deep devotion to traditional Catholic practices, including the use and veneration of icons. They openly opposed the emperor's iconoclastic policies, defending the importance of sacred images as a means of connecting with God and deepening one's faith. Their steadfast resistance to the destruction of icons attracted the attention of the emperor, who saw the monks as a threat to his authority. Consequently, the Abrahamite Monks faced severe persecution for their unwavering faith and commitment to the Catholic Church. Many of them were arrested, imprisoned, and subjected to brutal tortures in an attempt to make them renounce their beliefs. Despite the intense physical and psychological torment they endured, the Abrahamite Monks remained resolute in their faith. They clung to their principles and refused to compromise their devotion to the Catholic Church. Their martyrdom became a powerful testimony to their unwavering commitment to God and their refusal to abandon their beliefs in the face of persecution. The exact number of Abrahamite Monks who were martyred during this time is unknown. However, their deaths are estimated to have taken place around the year 835 in Constantinople. These holy men were canonized as saints by the Catholic Church, realizing their eternal reunion with God and their status as role models for future generations. The Abrahamite Monks did not have a specific patronage assigned to them, but their relentless defense of the use and veneration of icons serves as an inspiration and reminder of the importance of sacred art in the Catholic faith. The feast day of the Abrahamite Monks is celebrated on July 8th, commemorating their martyrdom and honoring their sacrifice in defense of the Catholic Church's teachings regarding icons. Their courageous example continues to inspire and guide believers in their efforts to follow Christ, even in the face of persecution and opposition.

Adam The Patriarch

Adam The Patriarch, also known as the First Human being, is a prominent figure in the Catholic tradition. He is believed to have lived in the Garden of Eden until he was expelled by God. Though often depicted with his spouse, Eve, and associated with the apple and the serpent, Adam's life carries great significance in the Old Testament and early Christian teachings. According to biblical accounts, Adam was created by God from the dust of the earth and was granted the breath of life. In the Garden of Eden, he and Eve enjoyed a state of innocence until they disobeyed God's command not to eat from the Tree of Knowledge. As a consequence of their actions, they were banished from Eden, shattering the harmony between humanity and God. As the first man and progenitor of mankind, Adam went on to have several children with his wife, Eve, including the well-known Cain, Abel, and Seth, along with other sons and daughters who are not specifically named in the Bible. Cain and Abel's story holds particular significance as it highlights humanity's struggle with sin and the consequences that follow. Adam is revered as an Old Testament Patriarch, a figure who played a vital role in the early genealogy of humanity. Although the details surrounding his life are somewhat limited in biblical texts, Adam's significance extends beyond his narrative. He symbolizes human nature as the pinnacle of God's creation and the beginning of the covenant relationship between God and man. Adam is often represented in artistic depictions holding an apple, which became an iconographic symbol of the fall of man. The apple represents the forbidden fruit from the Tree of Knowledge, enticing Adam and Eve into disobedience. This act introduced sin and separation from God into the world, requiring redemption through Christ. Additionally, Adam is frequently portrayed receiving life from God, emphasizing the divine origin of humanity and the intimate relationship between the Creator and His creation. The image of Adam's outstretched hand reaches towards the divine source, symbolizing his yearning for spiritual connection and salvation. Even though Adam lived prior to the formal establishment of the Catholic Church, his veneration and recognition as a saint transcends the pre-congregation period. Though not officially canonized, Adam The Patriarch holds a revered place within the Catholic tradition as a pre-eminent figure in salvation history. Furthermore, Adam is considered the patron saint of gardeners, as he was the first steward of the Earth and responsible for tending to the Garden of Eden. His connection to tailors also stems from the biblical account of Adam and Eve sewing garments of fig leaves to cover their nakedness after their disobedience. Adam's feast day is celebrated on December 24th, a date that connects with the anticipation and preparation for the birth of Jesus Christ, who is believed to be the new Adam, offering redemption for humanity's fall. In summary, Adam The Patriarch is revered as the first human being, created by God and placed in the Garden of Eden until expelled due to disobedience. His story encompasses themes of sin, redemption, and divine-human relationship, making him a significant figure in the Catholic tradition. Through artwork and symbolism, Adam's representation highlights his role as a pivotal ancestor of humanity and a symbol of mankind's longing for spiritual reconnection with God. Though not officially canonized, his veneration as a saint and patronage of gardeners and tailors showcases his enduring importance in both Catholic devotion and human history.

All The Holy Ancestors of Christ

All The Holy Ancestors of Christ is a revered group in the Catholic tradition that is venerated for their role in the genealogy of Jesus Christ. As their name suggests, they represent a collective recognition of all the individuals who were directly related to Jesus through his earthly lineage. While specific information about each individual ancestor may be incomplete or unknown, their collective significance in the Christian faith is highly regarded. The Holy Ancestors of Christ are not assigned particular names or individual profiles in the official Catholic tradition. Rather, they are celebrated as a group on December 24th, known as the Feast of the Holy Ancestors of Christ. This feast day acknowledges the lineage of Jesus and commemorates the faith and righteousness of those who came before Him. The inclusion of the Holy Ancestors of Christ in the Catholic tradition is rooted in the understanding that Jesus is both fully divine and fully human. The Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke provide genealogies of Jesus, tracing His lineage back to King David and Abraham. These genealogies emphasize Jesus' connections to the historical and prophetic figures of the Old Testament. As such, the Holy Ancestors of Christ are seen as unique witnesses to God's plan for salvation throughout history. While the Holy Ancestors of Christ do not have specific representations or individual patronages assigned to them, their inclusion in the Catholic tradition underscores the importance of heritage, lineage, and the place of every individual within God's divine plan. Their presence serves as a reminder of the continuity of God's salvific work throughout history and the importance of recognizing our own place within this grand narrative. It is worth noting that the veneration of the Holy Ancestors of Christ falls within the post-congregation phase, meaning that they are not formally recognized as saints by the canonization process of the Roman Catholic Church. However, their commemoration and veneration are widely practiced among Catholic faithful as a means of honoring and appreciating their significant role in the lineage of Jesus Christ. In conclusion, All The Holy Ancestors of Christ are revered by the Catholic tradition as an important group of individuals who played a crucial part in the genealogy of Jesus Christ. While specific information about each individual ancestor may be limited, their collective significance is celebrated on December 24th. Acknowledging the Holy Ancestors of Christ serves to highlight the depth of Jesus' connection to the faith and heritage of the Old Testament, emphasizing the continuity of God's plan for salvation throughout history.